Many outdoor sports facilities in the world are in climates where the external conditions are uncomfortable. Ideally, these stadia would not come with restrictions on when they can be used (time of day, seasonally) and how they can be used (play duration). However, both heat stress and wind chill become factors in the play of the game.
In cold climates, the objective is to keep winds out. In hot climates, the objective can be to either maximize ventilation - for cooling purposes - or minimize wind infiltration if active measures or thermal mass based passive measures are to be used for comfort. In very hot climates, to lengthen the amount of time open air stadia can be used and reduce the heat stress on the athletes, both active and passive cooling measures must be taken.
The objective of the analysis presented herein is to demonstrate how full scale simulations of a stadium can be used to design the roof shape (passive measure) and mechanical systems (active measure) to reduce infiltration and solar loads. The boundary conditions for these simulations are determined based on the local meteorological data coupled with RWDI developed tools. Multiple configurations of cooling systems and roof designs are tested using steady state and transient simulations to refine and verify a successful design.